In February of the 17th year of Chongzhen (1644), Li Zicheng conquered Taiyuan and soon sent his troops to the city of Beijing.
The Ming Dynasty was in danger, and the minister Li Mingrui urged Emperor Chongzhen to move south. He believes that a strategic shift to the south and a counterattack to the north can temporarily evade its edge. Moreover, the Ming Dynasty also had a complete administrative system in Nanjing, with a much stronger foundation than when Song Gaozong established the country.
Chongzhen actually has this idea.
However, the "keyboard men" in the Ming Dynasty were firm and opposed moving the capital. They advocate that it is shameful to retreat, to stick to the glory, the emperor to guard the country, and the king to die. It is politically correct to stay.
The ministers of Manchuria quarreled for more than a month, and Li Zicheng's army had already captured Juyongguan and Changping, which was close to Beijing. At this time, even if Chongzhen wanted to run, there was no way to go back.
Before the city of Beijing was broken, Chongzhen said, "All the officials mistaken me" before hanging himself, complaining that the officials are incompetent. Although these words are somewhat evasive, the officials who insisted on sticking to the slogan have indeed forgotten their slogans. After Li broke into Beijing and Manchuria entered the customs, they lined up to ask the new leader to arrange work.
In the controversy about moving the capital under the crisis of the late Ming Dynasty, the ministers who spoke generously did not seem to realize a real problem-Beijing's capital position is actually not stable.
The capital of Beijing has always been determined by dynasties. It is often accompanied by turmoil. The status of the imperial capital is not a gift from heaven, but the price of blood and fire. It has experienced ups and downs in more than 800 years.
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In the early years of the Jin Dynasty, the capital was originally located in Huining Prefecture (in present-day Harbin, Heilongjiang). Nvzhen conservatives still follow the old fashioned way, nostalgic for herding and hunting life, guarding the northeast and reluctant to leave.
At that time, Yanjing (now Beijing), formerly known as Liaoning and Nanjing, became an outpost for the Jin Army's southward advancement, and its economy was turbulent. After the Jin Dynasty destroyed the Liao Dynasty and the Song Dynasty, some extremists among the Jurchens took revenge on the Khitans and massacred them here for more than a month, leading to temporary chaos in the Yanyun area.
Later, it was Hailing Wang Wanyanliang, the fourth ruler of the Jin Dynasty, who decided to move the capital to Yanjing.
Wan Yanliang has always been a controversial figure. He was ambitious and launched a coup to murder Jin Xizong to seize the throne. He was also deeply influenced by Han culture. According to legend, he was inexplicably yearning for Jiangnan because of reading Liu Yong's poems and was eager to go south to attack Song Dynasty.
After Wan Yanliang came to the throne, he killed a group of ministers of the clan and demolished palaces and mansions in Shangjing and razed them to cultivated land. In the first year of Zhenyuan (1153), he moved the capital to Yanjing, named the central capital, and took over the world Order the meaning of the Quartet.
In addition, Wan Yanliang also relocated the ancestral tomb. In the Liao Dynasty, although the political and economic centers continued to move south, the Khitan nobles were buried in the north according to tradition after their deaths, but Wan Yanliang moved the tombs of their ancestors.
Wanyanliang moved the capital, first to consolidate his rule and get rid of the entanglement of the old forces, and second, to value the mountains and rivers of this place for military defense.
Yanjing lies on the Great Wall in the north and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal in the south. It can "fight the Siyi according to the Great Wall" and resist military threats from the north. It can also rely on the Grand Canal as a lifeline to ensure economic supplies.
At the beginning, Shi Jingtan of the Later Jin Dynasty ceded the sixteen states of Yanyun to Khitan, which caused the Central Plains dynasty to be deeply threatened by the north for the next two centuries. Yanjing's strategic position is evident.
As Zhu Xi, a great scholar of the Southern Song Dynasty, said: "Jidu, there is a great feng shui between heaven and earth. Mountains are sent from the clouds, surrounded by the Yellow River in front, Mount Tai stands up to the left as a dragon, Mount Hua stands up to the right as a tiger, and Mount Song is an example... The place of the capital is nothing better than the capital of Jidu." Master Zhu's level of Feng Shui is also top-notch.
Wan Yanliang’s policy of moving the capital undoubtedly strengthened the integration of the Jurchen and Han nationalities, but his fornication and tyranny had long aroused the dissatisfaction of the Jurchen clan, and was eventually killed by his subordinates on Zhengsong Road.
It was King Sejong Wan Yan Yong who seized the throne from Wan Yan Liang. He ascended to the throne in the coup, and some people advised him to abide by the ancestral instructions and move back to the Huining Mansion in Beijing, but more people of insight suggested that he rush to the central capital quickly, "according to his heart to give orders to the world, the cause of all generations".
King Sejong made a decisive decision and rushed to the capital, and as expected he quickly settled on the throne.
After that, the Wanyanliang Emperor was abolished, and his reputation in old history books has not been very good. People may have long forgotten that it was this tyrant's decision to build the capital of Beijing.
At the beginning of the 13th century, Mongolian cavalry went south, and Yenching once again became a military center. The reason why Kublai Khan, the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty, made the capital of Yenching was closely related to a struggle for the throne.
In 1259, Meng Ge Khan, who led his army south to attack the Song Dynasty, died violently under the Diaoyu Mountain in Hechuan. At that time, Kublai Khan was fighting the Song Army in Ezhou, and his younger brother Ali Bu had already begun to win the Khan position.
Ali Buge took the lead by dispatching troops and generals based in Helin, the capital of the Mongolian Empire (the former Hang'ai Province in present-day Mongolia). At that time, Helin was the capital of the empire and the center of the world. From the banks of the Rhine to the Yellow River, most of the Eurasian continent accepted the edict of this city and succumbed to the iron hoof of the Mongolian sweat.
When Kublai Khan returned to the north from the Songmeng battlefield, Brother Ali Buk had already commanded the troops in the north and claimed to be himself profusely. Hao Jing, Kublai’s counsellor, urgently submitted a letter, suggesting that Kublai’s class members go to Yanjing, and then go north to the grassland to fight Alibu.
当忽必烈汗从松孟战场返回北方时，阿里·布克弟兄已经指挥了北方的部队，并声称自己本人充裕。 Kublai的顾问Hao Jing紧急提交了一封信，建议Kublai的班级成员先去燕京，然后再向北去草原与Alibu战斗。
This Hao Jing was also a great man. Later, he was sent to the Song Dynasty and was placed under house arrest by Jia Sidao. He was placed under house arrest for 16 years. The Yuan Dynasty did not know whether he was alive or dead. He was not rescued until one year before his death, deducing a legend of "Su Wu Shepherd Sheep" in Yuan Dynasty.
Kublai already knew the importance of the Yanjing area. According to the "Yuan Shi" record, the Mongolian aristocrat Batul had admonished Kublai: Lian Shuomo. And the emperor must be in the center to receive the pilgrimage from all directions, and the king is to run the world, and the place where he stays must be Yan."
Therefore, Kublai Khan accepted Hao Jing's suggestion and went north to Yenching to prepare for the founding of the country and the capital, and then a decisive battle with Brother Ali. Ali is not as far away as Mobei, but he is beyond reach, and it is difficult to mobilize the Mongolian army into Han.
Kublai Khan succeeded in seizing the position of Khan. After the civil war, with the defeat of Brother Ali Bu, Helin quickly declined and became a regional center, disappearing in the long yellow sand of history.
At this time, the capital on the grassland is obviously out of fashion.
Another Han adviser, Liu Bingzhong, became the chief designer of the reforms of the Yuan Dynasty. He made suggestions for Kublai Khan, proposing to establish the country according to the Han system, issue uniforms, promote court ceremonies, determine official system, and establish the capital of Yanjing. Liu Bingzhong has a famous saying: "If you take the world immediately, you cannot cure it immediately."
When entering the Central Plains at the beginning of the year, the Mongolian army did not understand agricultural production, but only looted. Some Mongolian aristocrats even advocated killing the five Han surnames, Zhang, Wang, Li, Zhao, and Liu, and changed their farmland to grassland for grazing.
Under the guidance of this anti-scientific ideology, the agricultural economy in the Yanjing area was greatly damaged. This situation was not until the Khitanese Yelu Chucai told the Mongolian nobles that changing looting to taxation is a more effective way to get rich. Be relieved.
在这种反科学思想的指导下，燕京地区的农业经济受到了严重破坏。直到契丹人耶鲁·楚才（Khitanese Yelu Chucai）告诉蒙古贵族，将掠夺改为税收是一种更有效的致富方式，这种情况才出现。松一口气。
When ethnic minorities were still in slavery, they could conquer the Quartet with cavalry, and build capitals on the grasslands, which was convenient for rule and military deployment. However, when entering the Central Plains and accepting the Han system, moving the capital to the south was imminent.
Therefore, Kublai Khan adopted Liu Bingzhong's plan and ordered him to build a new city in the eastern outskirts of Yanjing. In 1271, he changed his country's name to "Dayuan", and moved his capital to Yanjing the following year and called it Dadu (now Beijing).
After the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, Beijing’s position as the capital still had to be unshakable.
In the early Ming Dynasty, although the capital was Yingtian (now Nanjing), Zhu Yuanzhang still had the idea of moving north from time to time. The locations considered include Chang'an, Luoyang and Beiping (Yuan Dadu).
Chang'an has "Chuanhan, the resistance of Zhongnan, the heroes of Wei, Ba, and Chan, and the victory of Baier Mountains and rivers". However, if there were no food transportation from the south, the emperor would have to drink the northwest wind if there was not enough food. What's more, during the Ming Dynasty, China was already thriving and demand for food was even greater.
Looking at Luoyang again, “pressing Jianghuai to the east, Guanlong to the west, Mangshan to the north, and Que to the south, it was once the capital of the Nine Dynasties.” This “resume” is also very beautiful and makes people shine. Prince Zhu Biao liked it very much. After visiting this place, he intended to move the capital here. It is a pity that Zhu Biao died early, and Luoyang lost its strongest supporter and failed to become the capital again in the Ming Dynasty.
As for Beiping, “the right embraces Taihang, the left focuses on the Canghai, Fuzhongyuan, the south, lies in the middle of the land, and lays a foundation for the future.” After the Mongols left, the north was not stable. At this time, Zhu Yuanzhang asked the courtiers straightforwardly: "The capital, Peking, can control Hulu, how does it compare with Nanjing?"
The views of Bao Pin, edited by the Imperial Academy, represented the views of most people at that time: "The Mongols prospered in Mobei and established their capital in Yan. It has been a hundred years, and the king's spirit is exhausted. Nanjing is the land of the king. Okay, there is no need to move the capital anymore."
The move of the capital was dissuaded by the ministers, so it was temporarily shelved until the Ming Chengzu Zhu Di launched the Battle of Jingnan and seized the position from his nephew Jianwen Emperor in 1403.
Zhu Di spent more than 20 years as a vassal in the north, and he knew that the disaster on the border was a serious confidant of the Ming Dynasty, and how important is Peking's military strategy.
Without Zhu Yuanzhang's concerns, Zhu Di resolutely returned to his "Longxing Land" and moved his capital to Beijing in the 19th year of Yongle (1421). From then on, Beijing became the political center, military center, and cultural center of China. Until the end of Ming Dynasty, Meishan was hanged by Chongzhen, and there was no southern crossing.
In the Qing Dynasty, Beijing was still the imperial capital. Like the capitals of the previous dynasties, Beijing in the early Qing Dynasty was also shrouded in the shadow of political turmoil.
Here witnessed the brutal national oppression in the early Qing Dynasty.
In the first year of Shunzhi (1644), the Qing government issued a land enclosure order, and farmers in the Gyeonggi area were forced to leave their homes, and the Manchu nobles ran across the countryside. Over the past two decades, 85% of the cultivated land in the counties in the suburbs of Beijing has been occupied, and all the land in the suburbs of Tongxian County (now Beijing Tongzhou District) has been occupied, and in the remote Huairou County (now Beijing Huairou District), private land has also been occupied. No self".
While enclosing the land, the Qing court's "enjoy" the Han Chinese who had no food or clothing became their slaves. Many Gyeonggi farmers not only lost their farms, but were also forced to become slaves. Some Eight Banners villagers even forcibly castrated the peasants who had been "invested in" by force. The brutality was heinous.
In order to get rid of the oppression of the villagers, a large number of peasants who became flag slaves fled, in the third year of Shunzhi (1646), "in a few months, tens of thousands of people have fled."
In addition to enclosing land on the outskirts of Beijing, Beijing's inner city is also "moving to Han". After the Qing army entered Beijing, it first occupied the residential areas in the east, west and central districts of Beijing. In August of the 5th year of Shunzhi (1648), the Qing court strictly ordered "all Han officials and merchants to live in Nancheng".
In the process of "moving to Han", the Qing government implemented a preferential policy, and each house subsidized four taels of silver as the cost of relocation. The common people dared to be angry and did not dare to speak. Some generations of old Beijing, which has lived in the "within the third ring", moved to the "outside the fifth ring" with four taels of silver due to a relocation order issued by the Qing Dynasty.
After the re-planning of the city of Beijing in the early Qing Dynasty, the inner and outer cities of Beijing were separated and ruled by the Han and Manchus, and the inner city became the Eight Banners army camp guarding the Forbidden City.
In the next two hundred years, Beijing was like an old man who had gone through vicissitudes of life. He saw that Daqing was gradually approaching the dusk of the end of the dynasty under the aura of the Kangxi and Qianlong prosperity.
In 1912, the Republic of China was established, and the Beiyang government headed by Yuan Shikai completely controlled Beijing after the abdication of the Qing emperor.
After Yuan Shikai's death, the three cliques of Zhi, Anhui, and Feng fought openly and secretly. On the political stage in Beijing, I will appear on the stage. From 1912 to 1928, the Beijing government changed nine heads of state, about 50 cabinets, the shortest of which was only half a day.
It wasn't until 1928 that the Northern Expedition led by the Nanjing National Government entered Beijing, and the Fengxian rule ended, and the dispute over the establishment of the capital became the focus again.
The northern forces headed by the Yan Xishan and Feng Yuxiang groups raised objections to the fixed capital Nanjing, similar to the reason why Yuan Shikai was reluctant to go south to become the interim president. Beijing is within the control of Yan and Feng, and it is undoubtedly better for them to make Beijing the capital.
As early as the year before, Feng Yuxiang put forward to Chiang Kai-shek: "We will move the capital to Beijing in the future!"
In order to refute Yan, Feng and others, the Kuomintang veteran Wu Zhihui gave a speech at the party headquarters in Nanjing, explaining the reasons for establishing Nanjing as the capital: first, let the late Sun Yat-sen "take the lead", claiming that this was Sun Yat-sen's consistent position during his lifetime; then he said that Beijing The ancient city is neat, but the old buildings with red walls and yellow tiles cannot become a symbol of the capital of the new era; in addition, Nanjing is close to Shanghai and geographically located in the center of China.
In short, "there is no problem with the capital being built in Nanjing."
Wu Zhihui's words were like a theory of coffee and garlic, causing quarrels among the literati in the north and south.
The geographer Bai Meichu published an article in the "Guo Wen Weekly" to create momentum for Beijing's capital construction. He said: Beijing has been established as a capital for more than 800 years. Those who established the capital here have been strong from generation to generation; Nanjing has a low-lying terrain and weak folk customs. In history, it was a land of gold powder in the Six Dynasties. The malaise was too strong. There are about ten projects in this building, and it will be promoted every year.
The implication is that the establishment of the capital of Nanjing will be over sooner or later.
Southerners were unhappy after reading this article. Gong Debo, the editor of Shenbao, known as "Gong Dapao", wrote that Bai Meichu "had no understanding of the meaning of modern capitals, and used theories before the 18th century to discuss modern times." The capital of the country".
This controversy lasted for several months, and finally ended.
Night view of Qinhuai River in Nanjing.
night view o FQ in坏river inn安静.
The Nanjing National Government changed Beijing to Peiping, and Beijing lost its position as the capital. However, the "King of Jinling" did not eclipse Beijing. On the contrary, in the following two decades, there were several disputes about moving the capital.
Especially in the later period of the Anti-Japanese War, the great debate on the establishment of the capital after the war, the politicians and academics advocated the establishment of capital cities including Nanjing, Beiping, Chengdu, Chongqing, Xi'an, Changsha, Wuhan and Luoyang, especially in support of Beiping, Nanjing and Xi'an. Those are the majority.
Since ancient times, China has said that "the emperor will guard the border defense". Then, where is China's future border defense and where does its biggest enemy come from. Some scholars started thinking from this.
The historian Fu Sinian pointed out that after the war, the capital was built "if you follow the methods of the Eastern Han Harmony, then you can live in Nanjing; if you have the courage to establish a country in the Western Han, you should put the capital on the frontier, and you should go to Beiping."
The "Ta Kung Pao" commented that "the center of post-war military diplomacy is in the northern continent, so our capital should be built in the north" and "the general trend of the north must not be neglected." Therefore, the capital of Peking should be established.
These disputes came to an end after the Nationalist government returned to Nanjing in 1946.
Beiping waited for another three years
In 1949, Beiping ushered in the dawn. By the resolution of the First Political Consultative Conference of the Chinese People, Peking changed its name to Beijing and became the capital of New China.
The line from Brother Xiao Ma in "The True Colors of Heroes": "I waited for three years, just to wait for an opportunity. I want to fight for a breath, not to prove that I am amazing, I want to tell everyone that I have lost. I must get it back!
▲Beijing: I also waited for three years.
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Fang Biao: "An Illustrated Old Beijing: A Brief History of Beijing", Beijing Times Chinese Bookstore, 2017 edition
Zhu Mingde, Mei Ninghua: "Jimen Collection: Collection of Essays on the 850th Anniversary of the Founding of the Capital of Beijing", Beijing Yanshan Publishing House, 2005 edition
(Sweden) Xirenlong: "The Walls and Gates of Beijing", Beijing United Publishing Company, 2017 edition
Hou Renzhi: "Beiping Historical Geography", Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2013 edition
Xu Chang: "The Struggle for Capital Establishment in the Late Anti-Japanese War", "Republic of China Archives" 2004-03
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