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yabo亚博-中国首都之争,争了800年
发布时间:2021-10-11 05:14:01

In February of the 17th year of Chongzhen (1644), Li Zicheng conquered Taiyuan and soon sent his troops to the city of Beijing.

崇zhen十七年(1644年)的二月,李自成征服了太原市,并很快派兵前往北京。

The Ming Dynasty was in danger, and the minister Li Mingrui urged Emperor Chongzhen to move south. He believes that a strategic shift to the south and a counterattack to the north can temporarily evade its edge. Moreover, the Ming Dynasty also had a complete administrative system in Nanjing, with a much stronger foundation than when Song Gaozong established the country.

明朝处于危险之中,大臣李明瑞敦促崇zhen帝南下。他认为,向南战略转移和向北反击可以暂时避开其优势。而且,明朝在南京也有完整的行政制度,其基础比宋高宗建国之初更为牢固。

Chongzhen actually has this idea.

崇zhen实际上有这个想法。

However, the "keyboard men" in the Ming Dynasty were firm and opposed moving the capital. They advocate that it is shameful to retreat, to stick to the glory, the emperor to guard the country, and the king to die. It is politically correct to stay.

但是,明朝的“键盘手”坚决反对迁都。他们主张退缩,坚持荣耀,皇帝保卫国家,国王死是可耻的。留下来在政治上是正确的。

The ministers of Manchuria quarreled for more than a month, and Li Zicheng's army had already captured Juyongguan and Changping, which was close to Beijing. At this time, even if Chongzhen wanted to run, there was no way to go back.

满洲的部长争吵了一个多月,李自成的军队已经占领了靠近北京的居庸关和昌平。这时,即使崇zhen想逃跑,也没有回头路。

Before the city of Beijing was broken, Chongzhen said, "All the officials mistaken me" before hanging himself, complaining that the officials are incompetent. Although these words are somewhat evasive, the officials who insisted on sticking to the slogan have indeed forgotten their slogans. After Li broke into Beijing and Manchuria entered the customs, they lined up to ask the new leader to arrange work.

在北京被炸之前,崇zhen说:“所有官员都把我弄糊涂了”,然后上吊自杀,抱怨说官员无能。尽管这些话有些回避,但坚持坚持口号的官员确实忘记了他们的口号。李闯入北京,满洲进入海关后,他们排队要求新领导人安排工作。

In the controversy about moving the capital under the crisis of the late Ming Dynasty, the ministers who spoke generously did not seem to realize a real problem-Beijing's capital position is actually not stable.

在有关明末危机下迁都的争论中,慷慨大方的部长们似乎并没有意识到一个真正的问题-北京的首都地位实际上是不稳定的。

The capital of Beijing has always been determined by dynasties. It is often accompanied by turmoil. The status of the imperial capital is not a gift from heaven, but the price of blood and fire. It has experienced ups and downs in more than 800 years.

北京的首都一直由朝代来决定。它经常伴随着动荡。帝国首都的地位不是从天上来的礼物,而是鲜血与火的代价。它经历了八百多年的风风雨雨。

▲The main source of the pictures in this article / Photograph Network

▲本文图片主要来源/摄影网

In the early years of the Jin Dynasty, the capital was originally located in Huining Prefecture (in present-day Harbin, Heilongjiang). Nvzhen conservatives still follow the old fashioned way, nostalgic for herding and hunting life, guarding the northeast and reluctant to leave.

在金朝初期,首都最初位于会宁县(今黑龙江哈尔滨)。女贞保守主义者仍然遵循老式的方式,对放牧和狩猎生活怀有怀旧之情,守卫东北,不愿离开。

At that time, Yanjing (now Beijing), formerly known as Liaoning and Nanjing, became an outpost for the Jin Army's southward advancement, and its economy was turbulent. After the Jin Dynasty destroyed the Liao Dynasty and the Song Dynasty, some extremists among the Jurchens took revenge on the Khitans and massacred them here for more than a month, leading to temporary chaos in the Yanyun area.

当时,燕京(今北京)原名辽宁和南京,成为晋军南进的前哨站,经济动荡。金朝毁灭辽朝和宋朝后,女真人中的一些极端分子报复了希旦人,并在这里屠杀了他们一个多月,导致the云地区暂时一片混乱。

Later, it was Hailing Wang Wanyanliang, the fourth ruler of the Jin Dynasty, who decided to move the capital to Yanjing.

后来,是金朝第四位统治者海陵王万彦良决定将首都迁往燕京。

Wan Yanliang has always been a controversial figure. He was ambitious and launched a coup to murder Jin Xizong to seize the throne. He was also deeply influenced by Han culture. According to legend, he was inexplicably yearning for Jiangnan because of reading Liu Yong's poems and was eager to go south to attack Song Dynasty.

万延良一直是一个有争议的人物。他雄心勃勃,发动政变谋杀金锡宗,以夺取王位。他还深受汉文化的影响。相传他因读过刘勇的诗而对江南怀有​​莫名的向往,并渴望南下进攻宋朝。

After Wan Yanliang came to the throne, he killed a group of ministers of the clan and demolished palaces and mansions in Shangjing and razed them to cultivated land. In the first year of Zhenyuan (1153), he moved the capital to Yanjing, named the central capital, and took over the world Order the meaning of the Quartet.

万延良即位后,他杀害了一批部族大臣,拆毁了上京的宫殿和豪宅,并将其夷为平地。镇远元年(1153年),他将都城迁至燕京,定名为中央都城,并接管了四方意义上的世界秩序。

In addition, Wan Yanliang also relocated the ancestral tomb. In the Liao Dynasty, although the political and economic centers continued to move south, the Khitan nobles were buried in the north according to tradition after their deaths, but Wan Yanliang moved the tombs of their ancestors.

此外,万延良还搬迁了祖墓。辽朝时期,尽管政治和经济中心继续向南移动,但契丹贵族去世后,按照传统将其埋葬在北部,但万延良将其祖先的墓葬移走了。

Wanyanliang moved the capital, first to consolidate his rule and get rid of the entanglement of the old forces, and second, to value the mountains and rivers of this place for military defense.

万延良迁都,首先是巩固统治,摆脱旧势力的纠缠,其次,是为了军事防御而珍视这个地方的山河。

Yanjing lies on the Great Wall in the north and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal in the south. It can "fight the Siyi according to the Great Wall" and resist military threats from the north. It can also rely on the Grand Canal as a lifeline to ensure economic supplies.

燕京位于北部的长城和南部的京杭大运河上。它可以“根据长城与四一战斗”,并抵抗来自北方的军事威胁。它也可以依靠大运河作为生命线来确保经济供应。

At the beginning, Shi Jingtan of the Later Jin Dynasty ceded the sixteen states of Yanyun to Khitan, which caused the Central Plains dynasty to be deeply threatened by the north for the next two centuries. Yanjing's strategic position is evident.

起初,后金史世坦将ed云的16个州割让给契丹,这使中原王朝在接下来的两个世纪中受到北方的严重威胁。燕京的战略yaboAPP亚博地位可见一斑。

As Zhu Xi, a great scholar of the Southern Song Dynasty, said: "Jidu, there is a great feng shui between heaven and earth. Mountains are sent from the clouds, surrounded by the Yellow River in front, Mount Tai stands up to the left as a dragon, Mount Hua stands up to the right as a tiger, and Mount Song is an example... The place of the capital is nothing better than the capital of Jidu." Master Zhu's level of Feng Shui is also top-notch.

正如南宋的一位伟大的学者朱Xi所说:“积渡,天地之间有很大的风水。群山是从云雾中散发出来的,前面是黄河环绕,泰山屹立于山顶。像龙一样向左走,华山像老虎一样向右站着,而宋山就是一个例子……首都的位置无比济都的首都更好。”朱师傅的风水水平也是一流的。

Wan Yanliang’s policy of moving the capital undoubtedly strengthened the integration of the Jurchen and Han nationalities, but his fornication and tyranny had long aroused the dissatisfaction of the Jurchen clan, and was eventually killed by his subordinates on Zhengsong Road.

万延良的迁都政策无疑加强了女真族和汉族的融合,但他的奸淫和暴政长期以来引起了女真族的不满,最终被其在正松路的部下杀死。

It was King Sejong Wan Yan Yong who seized the throne from Wan Yan Liang. He ascended to the throne in the coup, and some people advised him to abide by the ancestral instructions and move back to the Huining Mansion in Beijing, but more people of insight suggested that he rush to the central capital quickly, "according to his heart to give orders to the world, the cause of all generations".

从万延良手中夺取王位的是世宗大王万延勇。他在政变中登上王位,有人建议他遵守祖先的指示,然后搬回北京的惠宁大厦,但更多有识之士建议他“根据自己的意愿,迅速赶往中央首都”向世界发出命令,世世代代的事业”。

King Sejong made a decisive decision and rushed to the capital, and as expected he quickly settled on the throne.

世宗大王做出了决定性的决定,冲向首都,正如他所料,他迅速登基。

After that, the Wanyanliang Emperor was abolished, and his reputation in old history books has not been very good. People may have long forgotten that it was this tyrant's decision to build the capital of Beijing.

在那之后,万延良皇帝被废除,他在旧史书中的声誉不是很好。人们可能早已忘记,这个暴君决定建造北京的首都。

At the beginning of the 13th century, Mongolian cavalry went south, and Yenching once again became a military center. The reason why Kublai Khan, the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty, made the capital of Yenching was closely related to a struggle for the throne.

13世纪初,蒙古骑兵向南行驶,燕京再次成为军事中心。元代祖先忽必烈之王成为燕京之都的原因与王位斗争息息相关。

In 1259, Meng Ge Khan, who led his army south to attack the Song Dynasty, died violently under the Diaoyu Mountain in Hechuan. At that time, Kublai Khan was fighting the Song Army in Ezhou, and his younger brother Ali Bu had already begun to win the Khan position.

1259年,率部南方进攻宋朝的孟格汗在合川钓鱼山下惨烈死亡。当时,忽必烈汗正在鄂州与宋军作战,他的弟弟阿里·布已经开始赢得汗的职位。

Ali Buge took the lead by dispatching troops and generals based in Helin, the capital of the Mongolian Empire (the former Hang'ai Province in present-day Mongolia). At that time, Helin was the capital of the empire and the center of the world. From the banks of the Rhine to the Yellow River, most of the Eurasian continent accepted the edict of this city and succumbed to the iron hoof of the Mongolian sweat.

阿里·布格(Ali Buge)率领军队和将军派往蒙古帝国的首都(今蒙古的前汉高省)贺林。当时,贺麟是帝国的首都和世界的中心。从莱茵河到黄河,整个欧亚大陆都接受了这座城市的e令,屈服于蒙古汗水的铁蹄。

When Kublai Khan returned to the north from the Songmeng battlefield, Brother Ali Buk had already commanded the troops in the north and claimed to be himself profusely. Hao Jing, Kublai’s counsellor, urgently submitted a letter, suggesting that Kublai’s class members go to Yanjing, and then go north to the grassland to fight Alibu.

当忽必烈汗从松孟战场返回北方时,阿里·布克弟兄已经指挥了北方的部队,并声称自己本人充裕。 Kublai的顾问Hao Jing紧急提交了一封信,建议Kublai的班级成员先去燕京,然后再向北去草原与Alibu战斗。

This Hao Jing was also a great man. Later, he was sent to the Song Dynasty and was placed under house arrest by Jia Sidao. He was placed under house arrest for 16 years. The Yuan Dynasty did not know whether he was alive or dead. He was not rescued until one year before his death, deducing a legend of "Su Wu Shepherd Sheep" in Yuan Dynasty.

这个郝静也是伟人。后来,他被送往宋朝,并由贾思道软禁。他被软禁了16年。元代不知道他还活着还是死了。直到去世前一年,他才获救,演绎了元代“苏吾牧羊”的传说。

Kublai already knew the importance of the Yanjing area. According to the "Yuan Shi" record, the Mongolian aristocrat Batul had admonished Kublai: Lian Shuomo. And the emperor must be in the center to receive the pilgrimage from all directions, and the king is to run the world, and the place where he stays must be Yan."

忽必烈已经知道燕京地区的重要性。根据《元史》记载,蒙古贵族巴图尔曾劝喻忽必烈:连硕莫。皇帝必须居中才能接受四面八方的朝圣,国王要统治世界,而他所住的地方必须是严。

Therefore, Kublai Khan accepted Hao Jing's suggestion and went north to Yenching to prepare for the founding of the country and the capital, and then a decisive battle with Brother Ali. Ali is not as far away as Mobei, but he is beyond reach, and it is difficult to mobilize the Mongolian army into Han.

因此,忽必烈汗接受了郝静的建议,北上燕京,为建国和建都作准备,然后与阿里弟兄进行了决定性的战斗。阿里虽然没有门北那么远,但是他却遥不可及,动员蒙古军队加入汉军很难。

Kublai Khan succeeded in seizing the position of Khan. After the civil war, with the defeat of Brother Ali Bu, Helin quickly declined and became a regional center, disappearing in the long yellow sand of history.

忽必烈汗成功地占领了汗的位置。内战结束后,由于阿里·布兄弟(Ali Bu)兄弟的失败,赫林迅速衰落并成为地区中心,在历史悠久的黄沙中消失了。

At this time, the capital on the grassland is obviously out of fashion.

这时,草原上的首都显然已经过时了。

Another Han adviser, Liu Bingzhong, became the chief designer of the reforms of the Yuan Dynasty. He made suggestions for Kublai Khan, proposing to establish the country according to the Han system, issue uniforms, promote court ceremonies, determine official system, and establish the capital of Yanjing. Liu Bingzhong has a famous saying: "If you take the world immediately, you cannot cure it immediately."

另一位汉族顾问刘秉忠成为元朝改革的首席设计师。他为忽必烈汗提出了建议,提议按照汉族制度建立国家,发行制服,促进朝廷仪式,确定官制和建立燕京首都。刘秉忠有一句名言:“如果立即占领世界,就无法立即治愈世界。”

When entering the Central Plains at the beginning of the year, the Mongolian army did not understand agricultural production, but only looted. Some Mongolian aristocrats even advocated killing the five Han surnames, Zhang, Wang, Li, Zhao, and Liu, and changed their farmland to grassland for grazing.

在年初进入中原时,蒙古军队并不了解农业生产,而只是洗劫一空。一些蒙古贵族甚至主张杀死五个汉姓,张,王,李,赵和刘,并将他们的耕地改为草原以供放牧。

Under the guidance of this anti-scientific ideology, the agricultural economy in the Yanjing area was greatly damaged. This situation was not until the Khitanese Yelu Chucai told the Mongolian nobles that changing looting to taxation is a more effective way to get rich. Be relieved.

在这种反科学思想的指导下,燕京地区的农业经济受到了严重破坏。直到契丹人耶鲁·楚才(Khitanese Yelu Chucai)告诉蒙古贵族,将掠夺改为税收是一种更有效的致富方式,这种情况才出现。松一口气。

When ethnic minorities were still in slavery, they could conquer the Quartet with cavalry, and build capitals on the grasslands, which was convenient for rule and military deployment. However, when entering the Central Plains and accepting the Han system, moving the capital to the south was imminent.

当少数民族仍处于奴隶制时,他们可以用骑兵征服四方,并在草原上建都,这对于统治和军事部署是方便的。但是,当进入中原并接受汉族制度时,将首都迁往南部的迫在眉睫。

Therefore, Kublai Khan adopted Liu Bingzhong's plan and ordered him to build a new city in the eastern outskirts of Yanjing. In 1271, he changed his country's name to "Dayuan", and moved his capital to Yanjing the following year and called it Dadu (now Beijing).

因此,忽必烈汗采纳了刘炳忠的计划,并命令他在燕京东部郊区建立一个新城市。 1271年,他将自己的国家更名为“大圆”,并于次年将其首都迁至燕京,并将其命名为大都(现为北京)。

After the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, Beijing’s position as the capital still had to be unshakable.

金元时期以后,北京作为首都的地位仍然不可动摇。

In the early Ming Dynasty, although the capital was Yingtian (now Nanjing), Zhu Yuanzhang still had the idea of ​​moving north from time to time. The locations considered include Chang'an, Luoyang and Beiping (Yuan Dadu).

明初,虽然首都是应天(今南京),但朱元z仍然有不时北迁的想法。所考虑的地点包括长安,洛阳和北平(元大都)。

Chang'an has "Chuanhan, the resistance of Zhongnan, the heroes of Wei, Ba, and Chan, and the victory of Baier Mountains and rivers". However, if there were no food transportation from the south, the emperor would have to drink the northwest wind if there was not enough food. What's more, during the Ming Dynasty, China was already thriving and demand for food was even greater.

长安有“川汉,中南的抵抗,魏,巴,禅的英雄,以及拜尔山河的胜利”。但是,如果没有从南方来的食物运输,那么如果食物不足,皇帝将不得不喝西北风。更重要的是,在明朝时期,中国已经蓬勃发展,对食物的需求甚至更大。

Looking at Luoyang again, “pressing Jianghuai to the east, Guanlong to the west, Mangshan to the north, and Que to the south, it was once the capital of the Nine Dynasties.” This “resume” is also very beautiful and makes people shine. Prince Zhu Biao liked it very much. After visiting this place, he intended to move the capital here. It is a pity that Zhu Biao died early, and Luoyang lost its strongest supporter and failed to become the capital again in the Ming Dynasty.

再次看洛阳,“向东压江淮,向西压关龙,向北压芒山,向南压press,它曾经是九朝的首都。”这种“简历”也非常漂亮,让人眼前一亮。朱B亲王非常喜欢。在参观了这个地方之后,他打算将首都搬到这里。遗憾的是,朱标早逝,洛阳失去了最强大的支持者,未能在明代再次成为都城。

As for Beiping, “the right embraces Taihang, the left focuses on the Canghai, Fuzhongyuan, the south, lies in the middle of the land, and lays a foundation for the future.” After the Mongols left, the north was not stable. At this time, Zhu Yuanzhang asked the courtiers straightforwardly: "The capital, Peking, can control Hulu, how does it compare with Nanjing?"

对于北平来说,“右手拥抱太行,左手专注于南部的苍海,富中园,地处中部,为未来打下基础。”蒙古人离开后,北方不稳定。这时,朱元z直截了当地问朝臣们:“首都北京可以控制葫芦,与南京相比,这又如何?”

The views of Bao Pin, edited by the Imperial Academy, represented the views of most people at that time: "The Mongols prospered in Mobei and established their capital in Yan. It has been a hundred years, and the king's spirit is exhausted. Nanjing is the land of the king. Okay, there is no need to move the capital anymore."

帝国理工学院编辑鲍品的观点代表了当时大多数人的观点:“蒙古人在莫北繁荣了,在燕城建立了首都。一百多年了,国王的精神已经耗尽。南京是国王的土地。好的,不再需要搬迁首都。”

The move of the capital was dissuaded by the ministers, so it was temporarily shelved until the Ming Chengzu Zhu Di launched the Battle of Jingnan and seized the position from his nephew Jianwen Emperor in 1403.

部长的劝阻阻止了首都的迁徙,因此暂时将其搁置,直到明成祖朱Di发动京南战役,并于1403年从其侄子建文皇帝手中夺取了该职位。

Zhu Di spent more than 20 years as a vassal in the north, and he knew that the disaster on the border was a serious confidant of the Ming Dynasty, and how important is Peking's military strategy.

朱Di在北方担任了20年的附庸,他知道边境的灾难是明朝的重要知己,北京的军事战略有多重要。

Without Zhu Yuanzhang's concerns, Zhu Di resolutely returned to his "Longxing Land" and moved his capital to Beijing in the 19th year of Yongle (1421). From then on, Beijing became the political center, military center, and cultural center of China. Until the end of Ming Dynasty, Meishan was hanged by Chongzhen, and there was no southern crossing.

在朱元z的关心下,朱Di坚决返回自己的“龙兴土地”,并在永乐十九年(1421年)迁都北京。从那时起,北京成为中国的政治中心,军事中心和文化中心。直到明末,眉山被崇zhen吊死,没有南渡。

In the Qing Dynasty, Beijing was still the imperial capital. Like the capitals of the previous dynasties, Beijing in the early Qing Dynasty was also shrouded in the shadow of political turmoil.

在清朝,北京仍然是皇都。与前朝的首都一样,清朝初期的北京也笼罩在政治动荡的阴影中。

Here witnessed the brutal national oppression in the early Qing Dynasty.

这里见证了清初野蛮的民族压迫。

In the first year of Shunzhi (1644), the Qing government issued a land enclosure order, and farmers in the Gyeonggi area were forced to leave their homes, and the Manchu nobles ran across the countryside. Over the past two decades, 85% of the cultivated land in the counties in the suburbs of Beijing has been occupied, and all the land in the suburbs of Tongxian County (now Beijing Tongzhou District) has been occupied, and in the remote Huairou County (now Beijing Huairou District), private land has also been occupied. No self".

顺治元年(1644年),清政府颁布了土地封禁令,京畿地区的农民被迫离开家园,满族贵族奔赴农村。在过去的二十年中,北京郊区各县的耕地已被占用85%,通贤县郊区(现为北京市通州区)和偏远的怀柔县已被全部占用。 (现在是北京怀柔区),私有土地也被占用。没有自我”。

While enclosing the land, the Qing court's "enjoy" the Han Chinese who had no food or clothing became their slaves. Many Gyeonggi farmers not only lost their farms, but were also forced to become slaves. Some Eight Banners villagers even forcibly castrated the peasants who had been "invested in" by force. The brutality was heinous.

在围封土地的同时,清朝廷的“享受”没有食物或衣服的汉族成为他们的奴隶。许多京畿道农民不仅失去了农场,还被迫沦为奴隶。一些八旗村民甚至强行rated杀了被武力“投资”的农民。暴行令人发指。

In order to get rid of the oppression of the villagers, a large number of peasants who became flag slaves fled, in the third year of Shunzhi (1646), "in a few months, tens of thousands of people have fled."

为了摆脱村民的压迫,大批沦为奴隶的农民在顺治三年(1646年)逃离,“几个月内,成千上万的人逃离了。”

In addition to enclosing land on the outskirts of Beijing, Beijing's inner city is also "moving to Han". After the Qing army entered Beijing, it first occupied the residential areas in the east, west and central districts of Beijing. In August of the 5th year of Shunzhi (1648), the Qing court strictly ordered "all Han officials and merchants to live in Nancheng".

除了封闭北京郊区的土地外,北京的内城也在“迁往汉城”。清军进入北京后,首先占领了北京东部,西部和中部地区的居民区。清顺治五年(1648年)的8月,清廷严格命令“所有汉族官员和商人都住在南城”。

In the process of "moving to Han", the Qing government implemented a preferential policy, and each house subsidized four taels of silver as the cost of relocation. The common people dared to be angry and did not dare to speak. Some generations of old Beijing, which has lived in the "within the third ring", moved to the "outside the fifth ring" with four taels of silver due to a relocation order issued by the Qing Dynasty.

在“迁汉”过程中,清政府实行了优惠政策,每所房屋补贴四两白银作为搬迁费用。百姓敢于生气,不敢说话。居住在“三环之内”的几代旧北京,由于清朝下达的搬迁令,搬迁到“五环外”,那里有四两白银。

After the re-planning of the city of Beijing in the early Qing Dynasty, the inner and outer cities of Beijing were separated and ruled by the Han and Manchus, and the inner city became the Eight Banners army camp guarding the Forbidden City.

清初对北京的城市进行重新规划后,北京的内城与外城被汉族和满族分开并统治,内城成为守卫紫禁城的八旗军营地。

In the next two hundred years, Beijing was like an old man who had gone through vicissitudes of life. He saw that Daqing was gradually approaching the dusk of the end of the dynasty under the aura of the Kangxi and Qianlong prosperity.

在接下来的200年里,北京就像一个经历沧桑的老人。他看到大庆在康熙和乾隆繁荣的光环下逐渐接近王朝的黄昏。

In 1912, the Republic of China was established, and the Beiyang government headed by Yuan Shikai completely controlled Beijing after the abdication of the Qing emperor.

1912年,中华民国成立,袁世凯率领的北洋政府在清朝退位后完全控制了北京。

After Yuan Shikai's death, the three cliques of Zhi, Anhui, and Feng fought openly and secretly. On the political stage in Beijing, I will appear on the stage. From 1912 to 1928, the Beijing government changed nine heads of state, about 50 cabinets, the shortest of which was only half a day.

袁世凯去世后,Zhi,安徽,冯三族公开秘密展开斗争。在北京的政治舞台上,我将出现在舞台上。从1912年到1928年,北京政府更换了9个国家元首,大约50个内阁,最短的时间只有一天。

It wasn't until 1928 that the Northern Expedition led by the Nanjing National Government entered Beijing, and the Fengxian rule ended, and the dispute over the establishment of the capital became the focus again.

直到1928年,由南京国民政府领导的北伐战争才进驻北京,奉贤统治结束,关于首都建设的争端再次成为焦点。

The northern forces headed by the Yan Xishan and Feng Yuxiang groups raised objections to the fixed capital Nanjing, similar to the reason why Yuan Shikai was reluctant to go south to become the interim president. Beijing is within the control of Yan and Feng, and it is undoubtedly better for them to make Beijing the capital.

由颜锡山和冯玉祥集团领导的北方部队对固定资本南京提出异议,这与袁世凯不愿南下成为临时总统的原因相似。北京处于严和冯的控制之下,无疑让他们成为北京的首都是更好的选择。

As early as the year before, Feng Yuxiang put forward to Chiang Kai-shek: "We will move the capital to Beijing in the future!"

早在一年前,冯玉祥就向蒋介石提出:“将来我们将把首都迁往北京!”

In order to refute Yan, Feng and others, the Kuomintang veteran Wu Zhihui gave a speech at the party headquarters in Nanjing, explaining the reasons for establishing Nanjing as the capital: first, let the late Sun Yat-sen "take the lead", claiming that this was Sun Yat-sen's consistent position during his lifetime; then he said that Beijing The ancient city is neat, but the old buildings with red walls and yellow tiles cannot become a symbol of the capital of the new era; in addition, Nanjing is close to Shanghai and geographically located in the center of China.

为了驳斥严,冯等人,国民党老将吴志辉在南京党的总部发表讲话,解释了将南京定为首都的原因:首先,让已故的孙中山“率先”,声称这是孙中山一生的一贯立场;然后他说北京这个古老的城市很整洁,但是带有红色墙壁和黄色瓷砖的老建筑不能成为新时代首都的象征。此外,南京靠近上海,地理位置优越,位于中国中部。

In short, "there is no problem with the capital being built in Nanjing."

简而言之,“在南京建都城没有问题。”

Wu Zhihui's words were like a theory of coffee and garlic, causing quarrels among the literati in the north and south.

吴志辉的话就像是咖啡和大蒜的理论,在南北文人之间引起了争吵。

The geographer Bai Meichu published an article in the "Guo Wen Weekly" to create momentum for Beijing's capital construction. He said: Beijing has been established as a capital for more than 800 years. Those who established the capital here have been strong from generation to generation; Nanjing has a low-lying terrain and weak folk customs. In history, it was a land of gold powder in the Six Dynasties. The malaise was too strong. There are about ten projects in this building, and it will be promoted every year.

地理学家白美初在《国文周刊》上发表了一篇文章,为北京的基本建设创造了动力。他说:北京已经作为首都建立了八百多年。在这里建立首都的人代代相传。南京地势低洼,民风薄弱。在历史上,它是六朝时期的金矿之乡。不适感太强了。这栋大楼大约有十个项目,并且每年都会推广。

The implication is that the establishment of the capital of Nanjing will be over sooner or later.

这意味着南京首都的建立迟早会结束。

Southerners were unhappy after reading this article. Gong Debo, the editor of Shenbao, known as "Gong Dapao", wrote that Bai Meichu "had no understanding of the meaning of modern capitals, and used theories before the 18th century to discuss modern times." The capital of the country".

阅读这篇文章后,南方人不高兴。神宝的编辑龚德波(被称为“龚大宝”)写道,白梅初“对现代首都的含义不了解,并在18世纪之前使用了理论来讨论现代”。该国的首都”。

This controversy lasted for several months, and finally ended.

这场争论持续了几个月,终于结束了。

Night view of Qinhuai River in Nanjing.

night view o FQ in坏river inn安静.

The Nanjing National Government changed Beijing to Peiping, and Beijing lost its position as the capital. However, the "King of Jinling" did not eclipse Beijing. On the contrary, in the following two decades, there were several disputes about moving the capital.

南京国民政府将北京改为北平,北京失去了首都的地位。但是,“金陵之王”并没有超越北京。相反,在随后的二十年中,关于迁徙首都存在数项争议。

Especially in the later period of the Anti-Japanese War, the great debate on the establishment of the capital after the war, the politicians and academics advocated the establishment of capital cities including Nanjing, Beiping, Chengdu, Chongqing, Xi'an, Changsha, Wuhan and Luoyang, especially in support of Beiping, Nanjing and Xi'an. Those are the majority.

特别是在抗战后期,关于战后建立首都的激烈辩论中,政界人士和学者主张建立包括南京,北平,成都,重庆,西安,长沙,武汉和洛阳,特别是北平,南京和西安的支持。这些是多数。

Since ancient times, China has said that "the emperor will guard the border defense". Then, where is China's future border defense and where does its biggest enemy come from. Some scholars started thinking from this.

自古以来,中国就曾说过“皇帝会保卫边防”。那么,中国未来的边境防务在哪里,最大的敌人从哪里来。一些学者开始对此进行思考。

The historian Fu Sinian pointed out that after the war, the capital was built "if you follow the methods of the Eastern Han Harmony, then you can live in Nanjing; if you have the courage to establish a country in the Western Han, you should put the capital on the frontier, and you should go to Beiping."

历史学家傅斯年指出,战后建立首都“如果遵循东汉和睦的方式,就可以住在南京;如果你有胆识在西汉建国,你应该把首都放到边境上,你应该去北平。”

The "Ta Kung Pao" commented that "the center of post-war military diplomacy is in the northern continent, so our capital should be built in the north" and "the general trend of the north must not be neglected." Therefore, the capital of Peking should be established.

《大公报》评论说:“战后军事外交的中心在北部大陆,所以我们的首都应该建在北部”,“不要忽视北部的大势所趋”。因此,应该建立北京的首都。

These disputes came to an end after the Nationalist government returned to Nanjing in 1946.

国民党政府于1946年返回南京后,这些纠纷告一段落。

Beiping waited for another three years

北平又等了三年

In 1949, Beiping ushered in the dawn. By the resolution of the First Political Consultative Conference of the Chinese People, Peking changed its name to Beijing and became the capital of New China.

1949年,北平迎来了曙光。通过中国人民第一次政治协商会议的决议,北京更名为北京,成为新中国的首都。

The line from Brother Xiao Ma in "The True Colors of Heroes": "I waited for three years, just to wait for an opportunity. I want to fight for a breath, not to prove that I am amazing, I want to tell everyone that I have lost. I must get it back!

小马弟兄在《英雄的真面目》中的台词:“我等了三年,只是为了等待机会。我想喘口气,不是要证明我很了不起,我想告诉所有人我迷路了,我必须把它找回来!

▲Beijing: I also waited for three years.

▲北京:我也等了三年。

The full text is over, thank you for your patience to read, like it, click it and let me know you are watching~

全文结束了,谢谢您的耐心阅读,喜欢它,点击它,让我知道您在看〜

references:

参考资料:

Fang Biao: "An Illustrated Old Beijing: A Brief History of Beijing", Beijing Times Chinese Bookstore, 2017 edition

方彪:《老北京图解:北京简史》,北京时报中文书店,2017年版

Zhu Mingde, Mei Ninghua: "Jimen Collection: Collection of Essays on the 850th Anniversary of the Founding of the Capital of Beijing", Beijing Yanshan Publishing House, 2005 edition

朱明德,梅宁华:《集门珍藏:北京建国850周年散文集》,北京燕山出版社,2005年版

(Sweden) Xirenlong: "The Walls and Gates of Beijing", Beijing United Publishing Company, 2017 edition

(瑞典)西人龙:《北京的城门》,北京联合出版公司,2017年版

Hou Renzhi: "Beiping Historical Geography", Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2013 edition

侯仁之:《北平历史地理》,外语教学研究出版社,2013年版

施祖毓:《李明睿钩沉》,《复旦学报(社会科学版)》2002年05期

施祖毓:《李明睿钩沉》,《复旦学报(社会科学版)》2002年05期

Xu Chang: "The Struggle for Capital Establishment in the Late Anti-Japanese War", "Republic of China Archives" 2004-03

徐畅:“抗日战争后期的建制斗争”,《中华民国档案》 2004-03

This article is the original content of the NetEase News•NetEase New Humanities Wave Project Signed Account [Favorite History]. Unauthorized reprinting of the account is prohibited.

本文是网易新闻•网易新人文浪潮项目签名帐户[收藏夹历史]的原始内容。禁止擅自转载该帐户。

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